Sababihii Burburka Soomaaliya 19: A Critical Review of the PDF that Explains Somalia's Downfall
Sababihii Burburka Soomaaliya 19: The Causes of Somalia's Collapse and Its Implications for the Region
Somalia is a country that has been plagued by civil war, famine, terrorism, and foreign intervention for decades. The collapse of the central government in 1991 marked the beginning of a long period of instability and violence that continues to this day. But what were the root causes of this collapse? And what are the consequences of this collapse for Somalia and its neighbors?
sababihii burburka soomaaliya pdf 19
In this article, we will explore the historical, political, social, and economic factors that led to the downfall of Somalia's democracy and the emergence of clan-based militias, warlords, and extremist groups. We will also examine the role of external actors, such as Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, the United States, and the United Nations, in influencing Somalia's fate. Finally, we will discuss the current challenges and opportunities for peacebuilding and statebuilding in Somalia.
The History of Somalia's Democracy
Somalia gained its independence from Italy and Britain in 1960, after a long struggle against colonial rule. The newly formed Republic of Somalia was composed of two former territories: Italian Somaliland in the south and British Somaliland in the north. The two regions had different colonial experiences and political cultures, but they shared a common language, religion, and ethnicity.
The first decade of independence was marked by relative stability and democratic governance. Somalia adopted a parliamentary system with a multiparty system and a bicameral legislature. The country held four general elections between 1960 and 1969, which were considered free and fair by international observers. The political parties represented various ideological orientations and regional interests, but they did not align along clan lines. The Somali people enjoyed civil liberties, such as freedom of expression, association, and assembly.
However, Somalia also faced several challenges during this period. The country was poor and underdeveloped, with low levels of literacy, health care, and infrastructure. The country also had territorial disputes with its neighbors over the Ogaden region in Ethiopia and the NFD region in Kenya, which were inhabited by ethnic Somalis. These disputes led to armed conflicts and diplomatic tensions with Ethiopia and Kenya. Moreover, Somalia was affected by the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, which competed for influence and access in the Horn of Africa.
The Rise of Siad Barre's Dictatorship
In 1969, a military coup led by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre overthrew the civilian government and abolished the constitution. Siad Barre declared himself president and established a one-party socialist state under his Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP). He banned all other political parties and suppressed any opposition or dissent. He also imposed a strict censorship on the media and curtailed civil rights.
Siad Barre claimed that his regime was committed to modernizing Somalia and creating a national identity based on Somali nationalism and scientific socialism. He initiated a series of reforms aimed at improving education, health care, agriculture, industry, and women's rights. He also promoted a new script for the Somali language and a new ideology called "Somaliweyn", which advocated for the unification of all Somalis in the Horn of Africa.
However, Siad Barre's rule was also characterized by corruption, nepotism, human rights violations, and economic mismanagement. He relied on his own clan (the Marehan) and two allied clans (the Ogadeni and the Dhulbahante) to dominate the military and the government. He marginalized and persecuted other clans (such as the Hawiye, the Isaq,
The Collapse of Siad Barre's Regime
Siad Barre's regime faced increasing resistance and opposition from various groups and movements that challenged his legitimacy and authority. Some of these groups were based on clan affiliations, such as the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) led by Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, the Somali National Movement (SNM) led by Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo, and the United Somali Congress (USC) led by Mohamed Farah Aideed. Other groups were based on religious or ideological orientations, such as the Islamic Salvation Front (ISF) led by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) led by Colonel Ahmed Omar Jess.
These groups launched armed rebellions against Siad Barre's forces in different regions of Somalia, especially in the north and the central parts. They also formed alliances and coalitions to coordinate their efforts and strategies. The most notable of these alliances was the Somali National Alliance (SNA), which was formed in 1991 by the USC, the SPM, and the SNM. The SNA managed to capture Mogadishu, the capital city, and force Siad Barre to flee the country in January 1991.
However, the overthrow of Siad Barre did not bring peace and stability to Somalia. Instead, it triggered a power struggle among the various factions and warlords that controlled different territories and resources. The country descended into a state of anarchy and chaos, with no central government or authority. The civil war resulted in widespread death, displacement, famine, and human rights abuses. The international community intervened several times to try to restore order and provide humanitarian assistance, but with limited success and high costs.
The Impact of Somalia's Collapse
The collapse of Somalia had profound and lasting consequences for the country and the region. On one hand, it created a humanitarian crisis that affected millions of people. According to the United Nations, more than 300,000 people died from starvation and disease between 1991 and 1992. More than two million people became refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs), fleeing to neighboring countries or other parts of Somalia. The civil war also destroyed much of the country's infrastructure, institutions, and social fabric.
On the other hand, it also created a security challenge that threatened regional stability and global interests. The absence of a functioning state allowed various armed groups and criminal networks to operate freely and exploit Somalia's strategic location and resources. Some of these groups engaged in piracy, terrorism, trafficking, smuggling, and extremism. They also posed a threat to neighboring countries, such as Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, Yemen, and Sudan, which were involved in Somalia's affairs either directly or indirectly. Moreover, they attracted the attention and intervention of major powers, such as the United States,
The Prospects for Somalia's Recovery
Despite the challenges and difficulties, Somalia has also shown some signs of hope and progress in recent years. The country has witnessed several attempts to establish a transitional or federal government that represents the different regions and clans of Somalia. The most recent of these attempts was the formation of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) in 2012, which was recognized by the international community as the legitimate authority of Somalia. The FGS has been working to extend its control and influence over the country, with the support of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which consists of troops from Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, and Djibouti.
The FGS has also been engaged in a dialogue and reconciliation process with various stakeholders and actors in Somalia, including regional administrations, clan elders, civil society groups, religious leaders, and opposition factions. The FGS has also been negotiating with the main insurgent group in Somalia, the Al-Shabaab, which is affiliated with Al-Qaeda and controls large parts of southern and central Somalia. The FGS and Al-Shabaab have agreed to a ceasefire and a roadmap for peace talks, which are expected to resume soon.
The FGS has also been implementing a series of reforms and initiatives aimed at improving the security, governance, economic, and social conditions in Somalia. The FGS has adopted a provisional constitution that defines the structure and functions of the federal system. The FGS has also conducted a national census and a voter registration process that will pave the way for the first democratic elections in Somalia since 1969. The FGS has also launched a national development plan that focuses on key sectors such as education, health care, agriculture, infrastructure, and trade.
However, Somalia still faces many challenges and obstacles that hinder its recovery and development. The country remains divided and insecure, with frequent clashes and attacks between the FGS and Al-Shabaab, as well as among rival clans and militias. The country also suffers from poverty, corruption, drought, disease, and environmental degradation. The country also lacks adequate resources and capacities to address its complex and multifaceted problems. The country also depends heavily on external assistance and intervention, which sometimes creates dependency and interference.
Therefore, Somalia needs a comprehensive and inclusive approach that involves all the relevant actors and stakeholders in the country and the region. Somalia needs a political solution that respects the diversity and autonomy of its regions and clans, while ensuring the unity and sovereignty of the nation. Somalia needs a security solution that addresses the root causes and drivers of violence and extremism, while ensuring the protection and participation of the civilians. Somalia needs an economic solution that promotes growth and development, while ensuring the equity and sustainability of its resources. Somalia needs a social solution that fosters reconciliation and healing, while ensuring the dignity and rights of its people.
Somalia is a country that has experienced a long and tragic history of collapse and conflict. The causes and consequences of this collapse are complex and interrelated, involving historical, political, social, and economic factors. The collapse of Somalia has affected not only the country itself, but also the region and the world. The recovery of Somalia is a daunting and challenging task that requires a holistic and collaborative approach. The recovery of Somalia is also a hopeful and promising opportunity that offers a chance for a new and better future for Somalia and its people. b99f773239