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Being And Nothingness Epub 11 ((LINK))



Theoretical and practical innovations are needed if we are to advance efforts to persuade and enable people to make healthy changes in their behavior. In this paper, I propose that progress in our understanding of and ability to promote health behavior change depends upon greater interdependence in the research activities undertaken by basic and applied behavioral scientists. In particular, both theorists and interventionists need to treat a theory as a dynamic entity whose form and value rests upon it being rigorously applied, tested and refined in both the laboratory and the field. To this end, greater advantage needs to be taken of the opportunities that interventions afford for theory-testing and, moreover, the data generated by these activities need to stimulate and inform efforts to revise, refine, or reject theoretical principles.




Being And Nothingness Epub 11



In this paper, I describe and advocate for a model of collaboration between basic and applied behavioral scientists. Although I recognize the value of improving the manner in which theoretical principles are matched to problems and methods, I propose that innovations in our understanding of and ability to promote health behavior change will not arise if theory is construed as a fixed entity that is delivered to interventionists for implementation. To date, although theories may fluctuate in their popularity, their properties have remained strikingly static over time. I believe greater attention must be paid to refining and, when necessary, rejecting theoretical principles. For this process to take shape, there needs to be an on-going series of exchanges between theorists and interventionists in which theory is treated as a dynamic entity whose value depends on it being not only applied and tested rigorously, but also refined based on the findings afforded by those tests.


This document, EPUB Accessibility Techniques, provides informative guidance on how to understand andapply the discovery and accessibility requirements defined in the EPUB Accessibility 1.1specification [epub-a11y-11] that are unique to EPUB publications.


The accessibility techniques described in this document are advisory in nature. They are intended to helpEPUB creators create EPUB publications that conform to therequirements in [epub-a11y-11], but they are not all applicable in all situations and there may beother ways to meet the requirements of that specification. As a result, this document should not be readas providing prescriptive requirements.


This metadata does not make clear whether a textual access mode is sufficient to read the entirepublication, or whether a visual one is, only that the user requires the ability to read in thosetwo modes by default. This discrepancy is why sufficiency is also important to know.


Note that sufficiency of access is often a subjective determination of the EPUB creator based ontheir understanding of what information is essential to comprehending the text. Some informationloss occurs by not being able to view a video, for example, but the EPUB creator might regard thevisual or auditory losses as inconsequential if a transcript provides all the necessary informationto understand the concepts being conveyed.


Setting the correct access modes and sufficient access modes for EPUB 3 publications that containsynchronized text-audio playback requires evaluating whether playback is essential to reading thepublication or an additional feature.


If an EPUB publication does not meet the requirements for content accessibility in [epub-a11y-11],the reason(s) it fails should be noted in the summary. Similarly, if an EPUB creator is hesitant tomake a formal claim of conformance, the reasons why can be explained in the summary.


Do not repeat this property to provide translations of a summary. EPUB does not define a method forincluding translations. Putting different xml:lang attributes on properties does notindicate a translation and could lead to wrong summary being rendered to users.


As EPUB allows two EPUB contentdocuments to be rendered together in a synthetic spread [epub-3], the order of content within a single document cannotalways be evaluated in isolation. Content may span visually from one document to the next. Forexample, a sidebar might span the bottom of two pages.


[wcag2] Success Criterion 2.4.5 requires there be morethan one way to locate a web page within a set of web pages. By default, EPUB publications meet this WCAGrequirement so long as EPUB creatorsfollow the EPUB requirements to include allEPUB content documents in the spine and ensure access to all non-lineardocuments [epub-3].


The reason an EPUB publication passes by meeting these requirements has to do with differences inhow a user interacts with the set of documents in an EPUB publication. In particular, althoughan EPUB publication typically consists of many EPUB content documents, reading systems automaticallyprovide the ability for the user to move seamlessly from one document to the next, so long asthey are listed in the spine [epub-3]. To the user, an EPUB publication is a single document they have completeaccess to, not a set of disconnected pages that they need links to move through.


The required table of contents provides a second method to access the major headings of thepublication. The user can jump to any heading and continue to navigate from there, regardless ofhow the publication is chunked.


[wai-aria] landmarks are similar in nature to EPUB landmarks [epub-3]: both aredesigned to provide users with quick access to the major structures of a document, such aschapters, glossaries and indexes. ARIA landmarks are compiled automatically by assistive technologies from the roles that have been applied to the markup, so EPUB creators only need to followthe requirement to include roles for the landmarks to be made available to users.


EPUB landmarks, on the other hand, are compiled by the EPUB creator prior to distribution, andare not directly linked to the use of the type attribute [epub-3] in the content. They are designed to simplifylinking to major sections of the publication in a machine-readable way, as reading systems do not scanthe entire publication for landmarks, either. EPUB landmarks are typically not as numerous asARIA landmarks, as reading systems only expose so many of these navigation aids.


To a user, an EPUB publicationappears as a single document that they read from beginning to end, even though the content isoften split across numerous EPUBcontent documents. As a result, their natural expectation is that the headings reflecttheir position in the overall hierarchy of the publication, despite the publication not actuallybeing a single document (e.g., if a part heading is expressed in an [html] h1 element, each chapter that belongs to the part will have an h2 heading).


Consequently, it is necessary to provide the language of all text content in the package documentto conform with these WCAG success criteria. The easiest way to meet this requirement is to addan xml:lang attribute on the root package element[epub-3].


[wcag2] Success Criterion 1.1.1 requires that textequivalents be provided for all non-text content to meet Level A. In some regions (e.g., Asia),it is not uncommon to find images of individual text characters, despite the availability ofUnicode character equivalents. This practice occurs for various reasons, such as ease oftranslation of older documents and for compatibility across reading systems. The use ofimages in most instances leads to the text not being accessible to non-visual users,however.


The [epub-multi-rend-11] specification defines a set of features for creating these types of EPUBpublications. It specifies a set of attributes that allow a reading system to automaticallyselect a preferred rendition for the user or to provide the user the option to manually selectbetween the available options. This functionality technically meets the requirements of [wcag2] interms of ensuring the user can access the accessible version.


In practice, however, the [epub-multi-rend-11] specification is not broadly supported in readingsystems at the time of publication. As a result, a user who obtains an EPUB publication thatcontains more than one rendition will only have access to the default. Unless this rendition is theaccessible one, the EPUB publication might not be readable by them.


EPUB creators therefore need to use theirbest discretion when implementing this functionality to meet accessibility requirements. EPUBpublications that contain multiple renditions are conformant to the [epub-a11y-11] specificationif at least one rendition meets all the content requirements, but EPUB creators at a minimum need tonote that a reading system that supports multiple renditions is required in their accessibility summary. Any other methods the EPUB creator can use to makethis dependence known is advisable (e.g., in the distribution metadata).


Both the EPUB Structural Semantics Vocabulary [epub-ssv] and Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA 1.0Module [dpub-aria-1.0] include a semantic for static page breaks: pagebreak and doc-pagebreak, respectively.


The media overlays textelement is used to reference these elements, either to play back the pre-recorded audioin a sibling audioelement [epub-3] or to initiate playback of an audio or video element if theaudio element is missing (e.g., for embedded audio and video in thedocument).


If there are cases where the logical reading order (how a reader would naturally read thecontent) diverges from the default reading order, EPUB creators can order the playback sequenceof seq and par elements in a media overlays document [epub-3]to match the logical order.


EPUB 3's media overlays feature[epub-3] does not allow readingsystems to determine if playback sequences are skippable unless EPUB creators add additionalsemantics to the markup, however. EPUB creators must use the epub:typeattribute [epub-3] to add semantics to seq and par elements [epub-3], thereby allowing reading systems to provideusers the option to skip their playback sequences. 350c69d7ab


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